Singh U.P., Singh S., Boyaka, P.N., McGhee, J.R., and Lillard, J.R. (2004) Granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 mediates adaptive immunity through CXCR1 interactions and CD28/B7 upregulation. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76:1240- 1247.
Chemokines constitute a large family of structurally related proteins that play a role in leukocyte migration and differentiation. Indeed, the early expression of human CXC chemokine receptor 1 (hCXCR1) and hCXCR2 [homologous to mouse interleukin (IL)-8Rbeta] ligands by the epithelium is a hallmark of the mucosal host defense. Mice lack IL-8; however, granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2)/lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine, a murine homologue of human GCP-2, has 32% and 61% sequence identity to human IL-8 and GCP-2, respectively, and binds hCXCR1, hCXCR2, and mouse IL-8Rbeta. To better understand the role of GCP-2 in adaptive immunity and as a nasal adjuvant, we characterized the exogenous effects of this CXC chemokine on cellular and humoral mucosal immune responses. GCP-2 significantly enhanced serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA antibodies through increased cytokine secretion by CD4+ T cells.