Carrier E, Lee TH, Busch MP, Cowan MJ. Blood. 1995 Dec 15;86(12):4681-90.
Significant morbidity and mortality are associated with the conditioning therapy needed for postnatal bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for inherited diseases. This could be eliminated with hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation in utero, when the immunoincompetence of the fetus permits engraftment without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. We have established an in utero (day 11 to day 13) model of HSC transplantation in nondefective, allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched mice. Donor cells wre from pooled fetal livers of C57BL/6 (H-2b, GPI-1b) mice. Engraftment was tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the Y chromosome in female recipients (with 0.00001% sensitivity). Eight percent (3 of 36) of allogeneic mismatched (Balb-c, H-2d) recipients and 25% (3 of 12) of congenic (C57B1/6, GPI-1a) recipients showed durable engraftment (male donor cells detected beyond 20 weeks of age) based on analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes (P > .08).