Singh U.P., Singh S, Singh R, Frederick D. Quinn, Morris E. Potter & James W. Lillard, Jr. (2007) Influence of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis on colitis development and specifics immune responses during disease. Infection and Immunity. 75 (8): 3722-3278.
The granulomatous and intramural inflammation observed in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and veterinary Johne’s disease suggests that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a causative agent. However, an incomplete understanding of the immunological steps responsible for the pathologies of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) makes this conclusion uncertain. Sera from interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice with spontaneous colitis displayed significantly higher M. avium subsp. Mucosal CD4(+) T cells from the mice that developed colitis proliferated and secreted higher levels of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha after ex vivo stimulation with a Vbeta11(+) T-cell receptor-restricted peptide from the MPT59 antigen (Ag85B) than those secreted from cells from mice before the onset of colitis.