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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Media Ameliorate Psoriasis Vulgaris

Seetharaman R, Mahmood A, Kshatriya P, Patel D, Srivastava A. Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine. May 2019;

Abstract

Psoriasis, an autoimmune disease, affects a vast number of peoples around the world. In this report, we discuss our findings about a scalp psoriasis suffering patient with a Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) score of 28, who was treated with Mesenchymal stem cell conditioned media (MSC-CM). Remarkably, complete regression was recorded within a treatment period of one month only (PSSI score of 0). A number of bioactive factors like cytokines and growth factors secreted by MSCs in the conditioned medium are very likely to be the principle molecules which play a vital role in skin regeneration. Treatment using MSC-CM appears to be an effective tool for tackling the psoriatic problem and, thus, may offer a new avenue of therapy which could be considered as an alternative approach to overcome the limitations of the cell-based therapy.

1. Introduction

Psoriasis is a chronic disease thought to be of autoimmune origin which is characterized by patches on the skin and nails. It has been considered as a serious skin related problem affecting approximately 100 million individuals worldwide. About 2% of the world population and 0.44-2.8% of the Indian population were affected by psoriasis in 2016-2017 [1, 2]. Plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic are the five major types of psoriasis. Plaque psoriasis, also known as psoriasis vulgaris, is the most common form of the disease (about 90% of the cases) [3] which typically presents with red patches with white scales on top. Psoriasis vulgaris which commonly affects the areas includes scalp, knees, elbows, hands, nails, and feet [4].
Psoriasis, an autoimmune-inflammatory disease probably predisposed due to genetic makeup, is mediated by T-helper cells. Polymorphism, referred to as differences in DNA sequences of a gene, can be incurred by various external agents like chemicals, viruses, or radiation. Polymorphisms in genes of Th2 cytokine/regulatory T-cell (interleukin-10/IL10), Th1/Th17 cytokine (IL-12B and IL-23R), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFAIP3; TNIP1) confer which increased other risks like cardiovascular diseases amongst psoriasis patients [5–7]. Single nucleotide alteration caused polymorphism in Th1 proinflammatory cytokine gene IL-2 [–330 (G/T)] which has been shown to be associated with greater disease severity in the Indian population [1]. On the other hand, another gene polymorphism occurring in Th-2 cytokine/regulatory T-cell (IL-4) has been shown to be protective against psoriasis [5]. Upregulation in the levels of inflammatory cytokines leads to psoriasis which also can be associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis, lymphomas, cardiovascular risk, Crohn’s disease, and depression [3]. There is no permanent cure for psoriasis, though steroid creams, vitamin D3 cream, ultraviolet light, and immune system suppressing medications (methotrexate) have been in wide use to help control the symptoms with some success [8, 9].
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells which have an excellent capacity to proliferate for an extended period of time while maintaining the undifferentiated cell status. The resulting daughter cells can differentiate into various types of cells of host tissues and thus help repair wear and tear incurred [10]. MSCs have a potential to serve as a powerful tool in cell-based therapy due to their tissue regenerative and host immune modulatory capabilities. The functions exhibited by MSCs have attracted a number of scientists and clinicians to investigate the mechanisms involved in their curative and tissue regeneration functions. A very few articles have reported the effectiveness of stromal vascular fraction (SVF)/MSC therapy in curing psoriasis by regulating the immune systems. Lee et al. [11] reported that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) ameliorate psoriasis-like skin inflammation in mice and have regulatory effects on immune cells including CD4+ T cells and dendritic cells. The first case study on intravenous infusion of SVF into psoriasis patient demonstrated a significant decrease in symptoms with a noticeable difference in skin appearance, psoriasis area, and severity index (PASI) score reduction (from 50.4 to 0.3) [12]. Chen et al. [13] reported that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) infusion effectively reduced psoriasis in human subjects. It was believed that MSCs’ migration into the skin lesions and their immunomodulatory, autoimmune inhibitory, and paracrine effects were the principal factors behind the ameliorative effects. Other recent preclinical studies have shown that stem cell-derived conditioned media (CM) exhibit effective healing of psoriasis-like wounds and thus CM is an alternative for several cell-based therapies [14, 15]. The paracrine factors including growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines secreted from stem cells play a major role in wound healing [16] and these molecules are present in CM or spent medium harvested from cultured cells [17]. In short, CM can serve as a novel treatment approach in regenerative medicine which has been shown to have a successful outcome in preclinical studies. However, a very few reports are available on the clinical application of CM for treatment of any disease. Based on the principles and importance of CM, the present study was aimed at investigating the effect of MSC-CM on a patient suffering from psoriasis. This study is believed to be the first clinical report on the use of MSC-CM to treat psoriasis.

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