Specifically, in this as well as our other study , we found that resveratrol attenuated overall clinical scores as well as various pathological markers of colitis. Resveratrol reversed colitis-associated decreased body weight and colon length; and suppressed colitis-induced inflame-matory markers (iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α) and markers of inflammatory stress (p53 and phosphor-p53-serine 15). Also, resveratrol suppressed the activation of CD3+ T helper cells, and reversed DSS-mediated increases in serum amyloid A, TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6), and IL-1β. After resveratrol treatment, the percentage of neutrophils, and CD4+ T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of colitis mice was restored to normal levels, and there was a decrease in these cells in the colon lamina propria (LP). Likewise, the percentages of macrophages and neutrophils in MLN and the LP of mice with colitis were decreased after resveratrol treatment. Our studies demonstrated for the first time that SIRT-1 is involved in colitis, functioning as an inverse regulator of NF-κB activation and inflammation.