Survival of the injected ESCs was confirmed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of stemness genes such as Oct4, Sox2, and FGF4. The portions of the damaged neural tissues containing ESCs demonstrated a fourfold increase in expression of these genes after 1 week of injection in comparison with the noninjected ESC murine brain, suggesting proliferation. An increased level of platelet-derived growth factor receptor demonstrated that ESCs responded to damaged neural tissues, migrated to the damaged site of the brain, and proliferated. These results demonstrate that undifferentiated ESCs migrate to the damaged regions of brain tissue, engraft, and proliferate. Thus, damaged brain tissue provides a niche that attracts ESCs to migrate and proliferate.